Nano Analysis in Biochemistry: In Vitro Separation and Determination of Aluminium in Blood of Dialysis Patients Based on Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed to Ionic Liquid

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences & Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, (IAUPS), Tehran, Iran

2 Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Entrance Blvd., Olympic Village, Tehran, Iran


The highest concentration of aluminium (Al) in human blood has toxic effect and so, extraction from human body is very important. In this procedure, an efficient and new method based on graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) was used for in-vitro separation/extraction of trace Al from the blood of dialysis patients by ultrasound assisted-dispersive-micro solid phase extraction (USA-D-μSPE) procedure. Under optimized conditions, the linear range (LR), limit of detection (LOD) and preconcentration factor (PF) were obtained 0.1–4.8 μg L−1, 0.02 μg L−1 and 25 for blood samples, respectively (RSD<5%). The results of blood samples showed us, that the aluminum concentration after dialysis was higher than before dialysis (128.6±6.7 vs 31.8±1.6, P<0.05). The mean of blood aluminum was significantly higher in dialysis patients than in normal control, respectively (113 5±7.12 vs 1.2±0.1). The developed method based on GONPs/IL was successfully applied for extraction of critical level aluminum from human blood and suggested for in-vivo extraction from human body of dialysis patients after supporting on an appropriate surface
with biocompatible materials within the human body.


1. H.X. Iang, L.S. Chen, J.G. Zheng, S. Han, N. Tang and B.R. Smith, Tree Physiol., 28, 1863 (2008).

2. S. V. Verstraeten, L. Aimo and P. I. Oteiza, Arch. Toxicol., 82, 789 (2008).

3. A.T. Proudfoot, Clin. Toxicol., 47, 89(2009).

4. Z. Li, N. Lu, X. Zhou and Q. Song, J. Pharma., 43, 1609 (2007).

5. M. G. Abubakar, A. Taylor and G. A. Ferns, J. Biotechnol., 3, 88 (2004).

6. R. O. Brown, L. M. Morgan, S. K. Bhattacharya, P. L. Johnoson, G. Minard and R. N. Dickerson, Ann. Pharmacother., 42, 1410 (2008).

7. J.B. Mowry, D.A. Spyker, L.R. Cantilena, N. McMillan and M. Ford, Clin Toxicol., 52,1032 (2014).

8. Toxic substances portal, Aluminum, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, Accessed March 8, 2016.

9. S.V. Verstraeten, L. Aimo and P.I. Oteiza, Arch Toxicol., 82, 789 (2008).

10. A.T. Proudfoot, Clin Toxicol., 47, 89 (2009).

11. D. Drago, A. Cavaliere and N. Mascetra, Rejuvenation Res., 11, 861(2008).

12. R.O. Brown, L.M. Morgan, S.K. Bhattacharya, P.L. Johnson, G. Minard and R.N. Dickerson, Ann Pharmacother., 42, 1410 (2008).

13. V. Riihimaki, S. Valkonen, B. Engstrom, A. Tossavainen, P. Mutanen and A. Aitio, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health., 34, 451(2008).

14. P. Vasudevaraju, M. Govindaraju, A.P. Palanisamy, K. Sambamurti and K.S. Rao, Indian J. Med. Res., 128, 545(2008).

15. J. Lemire, R. Mailloux, S. Puiseux-Dao and V.D. Appanna, J. Neurosci. Res., 87, 1474 (2009).

16. G. Hernandez, A. Bollini, M. Huarte, Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., 40, 191 (2008).

17. B. Aspenstrom-Fagerlund, B. Sundstrom, J. Tallkvist, N.G. Ilback and A.W. Glynn, Chem. Biol. Interact., 181, 272 (2009).

18. T. I. Lidsky, J. Occup. Environ. Med., 56, 73 (2014).

19. R.L. Blaylock and A. Strunecka, Curr. Med. Chem., 16,157 (2009).

20. S.W. Bihaqi, M. Sharma, A.P. Singh and M. Tiwari, J. Ethnopharmacol., 124, 409 (2009).

21. H.M. Bolt and J.G. Hengstler, Arch Toxicol., 82, 787 (2008).

22. K. Srogia, Anal. Lett., 41, 677 (2008).

23. Y. Tangl, Ch. Sun, X. Yang, X. Yang and R. F. Shen, J. Electrochem. Sci., 8, 4194 (2013).

24. B. Tiwari1, A. Kumar, A. Gayakwad , N.G. Bhawsar, S. Khandelwal , S. Shakir, P. Waghmare, A. Verma and A. Gulatkar, Inter. J. Pharm. Toxicol., 4, 95 (2014).

25. A. Zioła-Frankowska, J. Kuta and M. Frankowski, Heliyon, 1, e00035 (2015).

26. M. H. Negaoka and T. Maitani, J. Health. Sci., 55, 161(2009).

27. T. S. Tsaya, Y. L. Huangb and W. C. Tsenga, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 56, 135 (2009).

28. R. Gajek, F. Barley and J. She, Anal. Methods, 5, 2193 (2013).

29. H. Shirkhanloo, H. Z. Mousavi and M. Mohamadi, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 61, 921 (2014).

30. A. Khaligh, H.Z. Mousavi, H. Shirkhanloo and A.M. Rashidi, RSC. Advances, 5, 93347 (2015).

31. H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh and E. Rahimpour, Anal. Chim. Acta, 30, 54 (2015).

32. S. Khazaeli, N. Nezamabadi, M. Rabani and H.A. Panahi, Microchem. J., 106, 147 (2013).

33. N.J. Simpson, Solid-phase extraction: principles, techniques, and applications, CRC Press, 2010.

34. H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh and Z. Talleb, Microchim. Acta, 179 25(2012).

35. G. Zhao, J. Li, X. Ren, C. Chen and X. Wang, Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 10454 (2011).

36. CH. Guo, PC. Chen, GS. Hsu and CL. Wang. Nutrients, 5, 1456 (2013).

37. A. Makhlough, M. Shokrzadeh, M. Shaliji and S. Abedi S, Res. Mol. Med., 2, 45 (2014).

38. H.SHirkhanloo, H.Z.Mousavi and M.Mohamadi, J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 61, 921 (2014).