Document Type: Review Paper
Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran, Iran
The rapidly growing field of biotechnology has created a critical need for simple, fast and high-throughput processes for the separation and purification of biomolecules from biological matrices. In recent years, several bioseparation techniques have been proposed as advanced alternatives to the classical separation methods. These modern processes emphasize ultra-high selective and sensitive analysis to determine promising chemical and biological entities. The current paper discusses the recent developments in the field of biotechnology using magnetic separation techniques based on oligonucleotides as the chemically synthesized and cost-effective biological ligands. In particular, they are very stable and not subject to thermal and chemical degradation. This allows the researchers to use labeled aptamers as highly sensitive and specific olgonucleotide probes in solution, membrane or magnetic nanoparticles-based assay systems. Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in the purification of proteins. The purpose of this review paper is to show the critical role of oligonucleotides ligands for separation or purification of biological compounds and ions in complex matrices. Using the suitable aptamers in separation and preconcentration processes is an excellent alternative to the classical ligands. Some practical examples of DNA-based magnetic separation processes are also discussed to show the efficiency of magnetic bioseparation.