Exploring the cytotoxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles: A compendious approach

Document Type : Review Paper


1 University of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, NSS Hindu College, Changanacherry, Kerala-686102, India

3 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of physics, university of zabol, zabol, iran



Metal oxide nanoparticles due to their antioxidant properties have attracted significant attention and exhibited good potential for use in cancer theranostics. Owing to the poor absorption in the physiological environment, they are an ideal candidate to act as nanocarriers in targeted drug delivery and bioimaging. This feature can be successfully implemented in live monitoring and imaging applications, which offer the possibilities and scope for optical, magnetic resonance, and nuclear imaging. The environment of malignant cells like the rapid proliferation of cells, specific antigen expressions, and leaky tumor vasculature can be used by the modifications in their morphology and surface functionalization. Ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been fascinating in this regard. Different properties such as size, agglomeration behavior, and surface charge density facilitate the interaction of nanoparticles with cancer cells. Compared to other nanoparticles, CeO2 nanoparticles have a potential for pharmaceutical use since they can act as a therapeutic agent in different disorders such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration, due to the ability to exhibit variable oxidation state at the nanoparticle surface. Recent literature reports the eco-friendly or ‘green’ synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles in which the biological agent acts as stabilizers for a cost-effective and feasible mode of preparation. In this review, we focus on recent literature on CeO2 nanoparticles with an emphasis on the methods of fabrication and biomedical applications.