Influence of heat treatment on synthesis of stoichiometric perovskite PbTiO3 nanostructure via hydrothermal method

Document Type: Original Research Paper


Department of Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran



In this research, the stoichiometric perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3) nanostructure was synthesized successfully by the hydrothermal method. The effect of heat treatment of the autoclave and the furnace on the structure of this material was investigated. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and lead oxide (PbO), lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) were used as the titanium and lead sources, respectively. The negative amount of the Gibbs free energy shows the reactivity of the reaction at room temperature. Characterization of PbTiO3 was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The amount of lead titanate increased by raising the temperature of the autoclave. The objective of this research was developing the hydrothermal method to produce the phase-pure lead titanate at lower temperatures; also the effect of the precursor materials and heat treatment on morphology and crystal grows the development of PbTiO3 nanopowders were investigated. There are not any secondary phases when the sample was calcined at high temperatures. It seemed that heating in the furnace in a longer period and higher temperatures could affect the size of the crystallites. The powder was heated at 1200 ℃ had the larger grains and the ferroelectric domains that may cause the lowering of the dielectric constant.