Exploring the cytotoxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles: A compendious approach

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 University of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Physics, University of Zabol, Zabol, P. O. Box. 98613-35856, Islamic Republic of Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, NSS Hindu College, Changanacherry, Kerala-686102, India

4 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



Metal oxide nanoparticles due to their antioxidant properties have attracted
significant attention and exhibited good potential for use in cancer theranostics.
Owing to the poor absorption in the physiological environment, they are an
ideal candidate to act as nanocarriers in targeted drug delivery and bioimaging.
This feature can be successfully implemented in live monitoring and imaging
applications, which offer the possibilities and scope for optical, magnetic
resonance, and nuclear imaging. The environment of malignant cells like
the rapid proliferation of cells, specific antigen expressions, and leaky tumor
vasculature can be used by the modifications in their morphology and surface
functionalization. Ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been fascinating in this regard.
Different properties such as size, agglomeration behavior, and surface charge
density facilitate the interaction of nanoparticles with cancer cells. Compared to
other nanoparticles, CeO2 nanoparticles have a potential for pharmaceutical use
since they can act as a therapeutic agent in different disorders such as cancer,
inflammation, and neurodegeneration, due to the ability to exhibit variable
oxidation state at the nanoparticle surface. Recent literature reports the ecofriendly
or ‘green’ synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles in which the biological agent
acts as stabilizers for a cost-effective and feasible mode of preparation. In this
review, we focus on recent literature on CeO2 nanoparticles with an emphasis on
the methods of fabrication and biomedical applications.