Influence of heat treatment on synthesis of stoichiometric perovskite PbTiO3 nanostructure via hydrothermal method

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Materials Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran

2 Maastricht University, Medical Center, Dept. of Urology, Maastricht, The Netherlands



In this research, the stoichiometric perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3) nanostructure
was synthesized successfully by the hydrothermal method. The effect of heat
treatment of the autoclave and the furnace on the structure of this material
was investigated. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and lead
oxide (PbO), lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) were used as the titanium and lead sources,
respectively. The negative amount of the Gibbs free energy shows the reactivity
of the reaction at room temperature. Characterization of PbTiO3 was carried out
using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The amount of lead titanate increased by raising
the temperature of the autoclave. The objective of this research was developing
the hydrothermal method to produce the phase-pure lead titanate at lower
temperatures; also the effect of the precursor materials and heat treatment on
morphology and crystal grows the development of PbTiO3 nanopowders were
investigated. There are not any secondary phases when the sample was calcined
at high temperatures. It seemed that heating in the furnace in a longer period
and higher temperatures could affect the size of the crystallites. The powder was
heated at 1200 oC had the larger grains and the ferroelectric domains that may
cause the lowering of the dielectric constant.