The Investigation of the Toxicity of Palladium Nanoparticles on Human Lymphocyte

Document Type : Original Research Paper

Authors

1 epartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 2 Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. 3 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

10.22034/jna.2021.685599

Abstract

Palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) have various applications in industries, such as:
Biomedicine, Sewage treatment, Electronics, and Catalytic processes. Different
studies on NP have shown that they have negative impacts on different cell
categories in vitro. Despite extensive considerations, the molecular mechanism
of Pd-NPs toxicity has remained elusive thus far. Therefore, in this paper,
we investigated the toxicity of Pd-NPs by evaluating their effects on a human
lymphocyte. Blood lymphocyte cells were initially isolated by ficoll solution and
were exposed to Pd-NPs and Pd (II) ions. Then, we examined oxidative stress, cell
cycle, and apoptosis employing flow cytometry. We found the NPs administration
suppressed cell growth, which in turn resulted in cell apoptosis. Also, the cell cycle
stopped at the sub G1 phase, resulting in DNA damage as well as profound ROS
increase. Our results showed that Pd-NPs treatment for 24 hours led to apoptosis,
oxidative stress, as well as cell cycle blockage. It is notable that Pd (II) ions induced
more severe toxicity. Our findings provide valuable insights on Pd-NPs toxicity.

Keywords